At the heart of the food pyramid are the most useful foods on which nutrition should be based. Above the main level there are three more floors, which gradually narrow as the use of products in the human diet decreases.
The basis of the pyramid, and therefore the basis of our health, are vegetables and fruits. After all, the greatest amount of vitamins and trace elements is contained in vegetables and fruits. These products are low-calorie and contain the optimal amount of energy.
Cereals and cereals with a rich fiber content settled on the second floor of the pyramid. It is also necessary to include potatoes, pasta from durum wheat and unpeeled rice. Fiber and starch, which are abundant in these products, contribute to healthy digestion.
On the third floor there are products with a high protein content. This category can be divided into two parts. The first are dairy and fermented milk products. The second is animal proteins (meat and eggs), vegetable proteins (legumes) and seafood.
The top of the pyramid was headed by so-called flavors and spices: garlic, aromatic herbs, pepper, avocado, olives, nuts.
In the previous pyramid there was also a fifth floor, which contained animal fats, butter and sweets. However, in the new version, these products are completely excluded. The developers of the pyramid came to a consensus – these products have nothing to do with rational nutrition and a healthy lifestyle.
The basic principle of the pyramid is the rule – it is necessary to eat food from all four floors every day. However, products from the lower tier (vegetables and fruits) should make up half of the daily diet, the totality of products from other sectors of the pyramid will make up the second half (25% – cereals, 20% – milk, meat, fish, 5% – additives).
To calculate the portions, the following measures are taken: milk, yogurt -1 cup, medium–sized fruits – 1 piece, bread – 1 slice, cereals, rice, pasta – 90-100 grams, eggs – 2 pieces.
It is recommended to eat from 7 to 11 servings of vegetables and fruits daily. It is desirable that each serving has a different color. Ideally, a healthy daily diet should include foods of all colors of the rainbow. It is better to start the day with yellow and orange fruits (orange or carrot juice), during lunch it is useful to eat something green (cabbage, cucumbers), but in the evening pink or red products (tomatoes, berries) will be just right.
The products of the second floor should make up about a third of your diet (6-7 servings daily). Cereals should be chosen in dark colors, they contain less carbohydrates and pasta from durum wheat, in contrast to light cereals. Potatoes should not be abused. Prefer rye flour bread.
Of the products of the protein group, nutritionists advise to pay attention to fish. Lean beef and veal, as well as white chicken and turkey meat should be consumed from meat products. But sausages, sausages and semi-finished products should be excluded from the diet. From dairy products – kefir, yogurt and low-fat cottage cheese. The daily diet should include 1-2 servings (100-150 g) of such products.
It is believed that if we consume products from the lower floors, we will receive products from the top of the pyramid in full. Therefore, their consumption must be minimized.